Nutrición para los deportes acuáticos

Por Iñigo Mujika , el 10 junio 2014
Salida de una prueba de natación en Londres 2012 (Foto: Iñigo Mujika)

Salida de una prueba de natación en Londres 2012 (Foto: Iñigo Mujika)

Bajo los auspicios de FINA, un grupo de expertos-investigadores-profesionales de las áreas de la nutrición del deporte y de los deportes acuáticos ha estado trabajando conjuntamente desde hace casi un año para aportar recomendaciones sólidas sobre las estrategias nutricionales óptimas, tanto generales como específicas para cada deporte.

Como resultado de este trabajo, en un par de meses se publicarán una serie de artículos en un número especial de la revista International Journal of Sports Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, y la buena noticia es que dicho número especial será de libre acceso desde la página web de la revista, lo cual quiere decir que se podrá acceder de forma gratuita a los contenidos electrónicos.

Hasta entonces, aquí tenéis los resúmenes de dos de los tres artículos de los que soy co-autor. El tercero, sobre recomendaciones nutricionales para el water polo, estará disponible muy pronto.

Nutrition and Training Adaptations in Aquatic Sports

Mujika I, Stellingwerff T, Tipton K.

Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2014 Jun 5.

Abstract

The adaptive response to training is determined by the combination of the intensity, volume and frequency of the training. Various periodized approaches to training are used by aquatic sports athletes to achieve performance peaks. Nutritional support to optimize training adaptations should take periodization into consideration, i.e. nutrition should also be periodized to optimally support training and facilitate adaptations. Moreover, other aspects of training, e.g. overload training, tapering and detraining, should be considered when making nutrition recommendations for aquatic athletes. There is evidence, albeit not in aquatic sports, that restricting carbohydrate availability may enhance some training adaptations. More research needs to be performed, particularly in aquatic sports, to determine the optimal strategy for periodizing carbohydrate intake to optimize adaptations. Protein nutrition is an important consideration for optimal training adaptations. Factors other than the total amount of daily protein intake should be considered. For instance, the type of protein, timing and pattern of protein intake and the amount of protein ingested at any one time influence the metabolic response to protein ingestion. Body mass and composition are important for aquatic sport athletes in relation to power-to-mass and for aesthetic reasons. Protein may be particularly important for athletes desiring to maintain muscle while losing body mass. Nutritional supplements, such as beta-alanine and sodium bicarbonate may have particular usefulness for aquatic athletes’ training adaptation.

 

Nutrition for Recovery in Aquatic Sports

Burke LM, Mujika I.

Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2014 Jun 5.

Abstract

Post-exercise recovery is an important theme to aquatic athletes, and involves interest in the quality, quantity and timing of intake of food and fluids after workouts or competitive events to optimise processes such as refuelling, rehydration, repair and adaptation. Recovery processes which help to minimise the risk of illness and injury are also important but are less well documented. Recovery between workouts or competitive events may have two separate goals: 1. restoration of body losses/changes caused by the first session to restore performance for the next; and 2. maximization of the adaptive responses to the stress provided by the session to gradually make the body become better at the features of exercise that are important for performance. In some cases, effective recovery occurs only when nutrients are supplied, and an early supply of nutrients may also be valuable in situations where the period immediately after exercise provides a enhanced stimulus for recovery. This review summarises contemporary knowledge of nutritional strategies to promote glycogen resynthesis, restoration of fluid balance and protein synthesis following different types of exercise stimuli. It notes that some scenarios benefit from a pro-active approach to recovery eating, while others may not need such attention. In fact, there may be some situations in which it may actually be beneficial to withhold nutritional support immediately after exercise. Each athlete should use a cost-benefit analysis of the approaches to recovery following different types of workouts or competitive events and then periodize different recovery strategies into their training or competition programs.

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5 comentarios

  1. Buenas Inigo
    Ante todo muchas gracias por todo tu trabajo y tus aportaciones en el mundo de la fisiología deportiva.
    Me podrías recomendar algun artículo/libro/autor que profundice en las carreras de resistencia por montaña de larga distancia? Tanto en el plano de entrenamiento como en el de nutrición.
    Muchas gracias

    Antonio Navas

    junio 18, 2014
  2. Antonio, yo te recomiendo “Ultra-Trail – Plaisir, Performance, Santé”, de Guillaume Millet (en francés).

    junio 18, 2014
  3. unai

    Buenos dias Iñigo:
    Yo queria hacerte una consulta ¿podria ponerme en contammi cto contigo via mail o de alguna manera?
    Mi mail es : [email protected]
    Muchas gracias.
    Un saludo y siento las molestias

    junio 18, 2014
  4. Josep Serrano

    Hola Iñigo, ante todo agradecerte por compartir este gran blog de forma gratuita,con un estudiante de GCAFD, y entusiasta del entrenamiento, quería saber en que se basa el entrenador de natación para cuantificar la carga de entrenamiento óptima, este es m mail . [email protected]
    Un cordial saludo.

    julio 2, 2014
  5. Gabor Faskerti

    Dear Inigo
    I would like to buy one of your book: Endurance Training. I attend the ISSSMC 2014 in Newcastle where you will be a speaker. Is it possible to bring me a copy to there?
    Best wishes,
    Gabor

    agosto 7, 2014

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